The following is a picture of P46. “P” stands for papyrus.
Extant (text that has survived from the past to the present time) Biblical fragments have numbers associated with them to differentiate them from one another, in this particular case, the number 46. P46 contains almost all of 1st and 2nd Corinthians and 5 other epistles (letters) too.
The letters (1st & 2nd Corinthians) are written by a Rabbi that was also a Pharisee – a Pharisaical Rabbi that studied at the feet of another Pharisaical Rabbi who was also the Nasi (President) of the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem – considered one of the greatest teachers in Jewish history and who was also a grandson of Hillel, another great teacher in Jewish history.
It is said that Hillel was once approached by a Gentile that had been rejected by Shammai. He approached Hillel and said I will convert if you can teach me Torah while I stand on one leg. Hillel, realizing that they could spend years discussing Torah, took a quick approach and reiterated the 2nd most important command:
Love your neighbor as yourself – this is the whole Torah – the rest is just commentary – go and learn it.
Who was that grandson of Hillel that the Rabbi that wrote these letters studied at the feet of? A Rabbi that was considered one of the greatest teachers in Jewish history? Rabban (our master) Gamaliel the Elder. You may remember him from the text when he states:
Acts 5:33-39 (CJB) 33 On hearing this, the members of the Sanhedrin were infuriated and wanted to put the emissaries to death. 34 But one of the members of the Sanhedrin rose to his feet,
a Parush (Pharisee) named Gamli’el,
a teacher of the Torah highly respected by all the people. He ordered the men put outside for a little while 35 and then addressed the court:
“Men of Isra’el, take care what you do to these people. 36 Some time ago, there was a rebellion under Todah, who claimed to be somebody special; and a number of men, maybe four hundred, rallied behind him. But upon his being put to death, his whole following was broken up and came to nothing. 37 After this, Y’hudah HaG’lili led another uprising, back at the time of the enrollment for the Roman tax; and he got some people to defect to him. But he was killed, and all his followers were scattered. 38 So in the present case,
my advice to you is not to interfere with these people, but to leave them alone.
For if this idea or this movement has a human origin, it will collapse. 39 But if it is from God, you will not be able to stop them;
you might even find yourselves fighting God!”
They heeded his advice.
This Pharisaical Rabbi that wrote these two letters to the Corinthians (and 2 more letters that are referenced in these letters but lost to us) and studied at the feet of Rabban Gamaliel the Elder is the Rabbi Sha’ul (Paul) of Tarsus. He is doing what Rabbis did and do in writing these letters to the Corinthians: correcting wrong thinking and wrong doing.
The Corinthian congregation has lots of problems: sexual immorality, division, pride, misuse of gifts, suing other brothers in pagan courts, eating food sacrificed to idols, the list is long. Their biggest problem is that they were worldly and weren’t maturing – weren’t changing:
1 Corinthians 3:1-3 (CJB) 1 As for me, brothers, I couldn’t talk to you as spiritual people but as worldly people, as babies, so far as experience with the Messiah is concerned. 2 I gave you milk, not solid food, because you were not yet ready for it. But you aren’t ready for it now either!
3 For you are still worldly!
Isn’t it obvious from all the jealousy and quarreling among you that you are worldly and living by merely human standards?
Ironically, many modern churches model themselves after the Corinthian church – arguably the most worldly of all of the churches in the text.
The following are the quotes from the TaNaKh (Old Testament) in the Brit Chadashah (New Testament) letters of 1st Corinthians and 2nd Corinthians.
|1 Corinthians 1:19 (CJB) 19 Indeed, the Tanakh says,
“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise and frustrate the intelligence of the intelligent.”
|Isaiah 29:14 (CJB) 14 therefore, I will have to keep shocking these people with astounding and amazing things, until the ‘wisdom’ of their ‘wise ones’ vanishes, and the ‘discernment’ of their ‘discerning ones’ is hidden away.”|
|1 Corinthians 1:31 (CJB) 31 Therefore — as the Tanakh says —
“Let anyone who wants to boast, boast about Adonai.”
|Jeremiah 9:24 (CJB) 24 instead, let the boaster boast about this:
that he understands and knows me —
that I am Adonai, practicing grace,
justice and righteousness in the land;
for in these things I take pleasure,” says Adonai.
|1 Corinthians 2:9 (CJB) 9 But, as the Tanakh says,
“No eye has seen, no ear has heard
and no one’s heart has imagined
all the things that God has prepared
for those who love him.”
|Isaiah 64:4 (CJB) 4 No one has ever heard,
no ear perceived, no eye seen,
any God but you.
You work for him who waits for you.
Isaiah 52:15 (CJB) 15 so now he will startle many nations;
because of him, kings will be speechless.
For they will see what they had not been told,
they will ponder things they had never heard.”
|1 Corinthians 2:15 (CJB) 15 But the person who has the Spirit can evaluate everything, while no one is in a position to evaluate him.
For who has known the mind of Adonai?
Who will counsel him?
But we have the mind of the Messiah!
|Isaiah 40:13 (CJB) 13 Who has measured the Spirit of Adonai?
Who has been his counselor, instructing him?
|1 Corinthians 3:19 (CJB) 19 For the wisdom of this world is nonsense, as far as God is concerned; inasmuch as the Tanakh says,
“He traps the wise in their own cleverness,”
|Job 5:13 (CJB) 13 trapping the crafty in their own tricks
and foiling quickly the plans of the false.
|1 Corinthians 3:20 (CJB) 20 and again,
“Adonai knows that
the thoughts of the wise are worthless.”
|Psalm 94:11 (CJB) 11 Adonai understands that people’s thoughts
are merely a puff of wind.
|1 Corinthians 5:13 (CJB) 13 God will judge those who are outside. Just expel the evildoer from among yourselves.||Deuteronomy 13:5 (CJB) 5 and that prophet or dreamer is to be put to death; because he urged rebellion against Adonai your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt and redeemed you from a life of slavery; in order to seduce you away from the path Adonai your God ordered you to follow. This is how you are to rid your community of this wickedness.
Deuteronomy 17:7 (CJB) 7 The witnesses are to be the first to stone him to death; afterwards, all the people are to stone him. Thus you will put an end to this wickedness among you.
Deuteronomy 17:12 (CJB) 12 Anyone presumptuous enough not to pay attention to the cohen appointed there to serve Adonai your God or to the judge — that person must die. Thus you will exterminate such wickedness from Isra’el —
Deuteronomy 19:19 (CJB) 19 you are to do to him what he intended to do to his brother. In this way, you will put an end to such wickedness among you.
Deuteronomy 21:21 (CJB) 21 Then all the men of his town are to stone him to death; in this way you will put an end to such wickedness among you, and all Isra’el will hear about it and be afraid.
Deuteronomy 22:21 (CJB) 21 then they are to lead the girl to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her town will stone her to death, because she has committed in Isra’el the disgraceful act of being a prostitute while still in her father’s house. In this way you will put an end to such wickedness among you.
Deuteronomy 22:24 (CJB) 24 you are to bring them both out to the gate of the city and stone them to death — the girl because she didn’t cry out for help, there in the city, and the man because he has humiliated his neighbor’s wife. In this way you will put an end to such wickedness among you.
Deuteronomy 24:7 (CJB) 7 “If a man kidnaps any of his brothers, fellow members of the community of Isra’el, and makes him his slave or sells him, that kidnapper must die; in this way you will put an end to such wickedness among you.
|1 Corinthians 6:16 (CJB) 16 Don’t you know that a man who joins himself to a prostitute becomes physically one with her? For the Tanakh says, “The two will become one flesh”;||Genesis 2:24 (CJB) 24 This is why a man is to leave his father and mother and stick with his wife, and they are to be one (אֶחָד ʾechādh) flesh.|
|1 Corinthians 9:9 (CJB) 9 for in the Torah of Moshe it is written,
“You are not to put a muzzle on an ox when it is treading out the grain.”
If God is concerned about cattle,
|Deuteronomy 25:4 (CJB) 4 “You are not to muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain.
|1 Corinthians 10:7 (CJB) 7 Don’t be idolaters, as some of them were — as the Tanakh puts it,
“The people sat down to eat and drink, then got up to indulge in revelry.”
|Exodus 32:6 (CJB) 6 Early the next morning they got up and offered burnt offerings and presented peace offerings. Afterwards, the people sat down to eat and drink; then they got up to indulge in revelry.|
|1 Corinthians 10:26 (CJB) 26 for the earth and everything in it belong to the Lord.||Psalm 24:1 (CJB) 1 The earth is Adonai’s, with all that is in it,
the world and those who live there;
Psalm 50:12 (CJB) 12 If I were hungry, I would not tell you;
for the world is mine, and everything in it.
Psalm 89:11 (CJB) 11 The heavens are yours, and the earth is yours; you founded the world and everything in it.
|1 Corinthians 14:21 (CJB) 21 In the Torah it is written,
“By other tongues,
by the lips of foreigners
I will speak to this people.
But even then they will not listen to me,”
|Isaiah 28:11-12 (CJB) 11 So with stammering lips, in a foreign accent, [Adonai] will speak to this people. 12 He once told this people, “It’s time to rest,
the exhausted can rest, now you can relax”—
but they wouldn’t listen.
|1 Corinthians 15:27 (CJB) 27 for
“He put everything in subjection under his feet.”
But when it says that “everything”
has been subjected,
obviously the word does not include God,
who is himself the one subjecting everything
to the Messiah.
|Psalm 8:6 (CJB) 6 you had him rule what your hands made,
you put everything under his feet —
|1 Corinthians 15:32 (CJB) 32 If my fighting with “wild beasts” in Ephesus was done merely on a human basis, what do I gain by it? If dead people are not raised, we might as well live by the saying,
“Let’s eat and drink, for tomorrow we die!”
|Isaiah 22:13 (CJB) 13 but instead, one sees joy and celebrating,
killing of oxen, slaughtering of sheep,
eating of meat, drinking of wine —
“Let’s eat and drink now,
because tomorrow we’ll be dead!”
Isaiah 56:12 (CJB) 12 “Come, I’ll get some wine,
we’ll fill up on good, strong liquor!
Tomorrow will be like today;
in fact, it will be even better!”
|1 Corinthians 15:45 (CJB) 45 In fact, the Tanakh says so: Adam, the first man, became a living human being; but the last “Adam” has become a life-giving Spirit.||Genesis 2:7 (CJB) 7 Then Adonai, God,
formed a person [Hebrew: adam]
from the dust of the ground [Hebrew: adamah] and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life,
so that he became a living being.
|1 Corinthians 15:54 (CJB) 54 When what decays puts on imperishability and what is mortal puts on immortality, then this passage in the Tanakh will be fulfilled:
“Death is swallowed up in victory.
|Isaiah 25:8 (CJB) 8 He will swallow up death forever.
Adonai Elohim will wipe away
the tears from every face,
and he will remove from all the earth
the disgrace his people suffer.
For Adonai has spoken.
|1 Corinthians 15:55 (CJB) 55 “Death, where is your victory?
Death, where is your sting?”
|Hosea 13:14 (CJB) 14 Should I ransom them from the power of Sh’ol? Should I redeem them from death?
Where are your plagues, death;
where is your destruction, Sh’ol?
My eyes are closed to compassion.
|2 Corinthians 3:16 (CJB) 16 “But,” says the Torah, “whenever someone turns to Adonai, the veil is taken away.”||Exodus 34:34 (CJB) 34 But when he went in before Adonai
for him to speak,
he would take the veil off until he came out;
then, when he came out,
he would tell the people of Isra’el
what he had been ordered.
|2 Corinthians 4:13 (CJB) 13 The Tanakh says, “I trusted, therefore I spoke.” Since we have that same Spirit who enables us to trust, we also trust and therefore speak;||Psalm 116:10 (CJB) 10 I will keep on trusting even when I say,
“I am utterly miserable,”
|2 Corinthians 6:2 (CJB) 2 For he says,
“At the acceptable time I heard you;
in the day of salvation I helped you.”
|Isaiah 49:8 (CJB) 8 Here is what Adonai says:
“At the time when I choose, I will answer you;
on the day of salvation, I will help you.
I have preserved you, and I have appointed you
to be the covenant for a people,
to restore the land and distribute again
its ruined inheritances to their owners,
|2 Corinthians 6:16 (CJB) 16 What agreement can there be between the temple of God and idols? For we are the temple of the living God — as God said,
“I will house myself in them,…
and I will walk among you.
I will be their God,
and they will be my people.”
|Leviticus 26:12 (CJB) 12 but I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be my people.
Exodus 6:7 (CJB) 7 I will take you as my people, and I will be your God. Then you will know that I am Adonai your God, who freed you from the forced labor of the Egyptians.
Jeremiah 31:33 (CJB) 33 “For this is the covenant I will make with the house of Isra’el after those days,” says Adonai: “I will put my Torah within them and write it on their hearts; I will be their God, and they will be my people.
Jeremiah 32:38 (CJB) 38 They will be my people, and I will be their God. Ezekiel 37:27 (CJB) 27 My home will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people.
|2 Corinthians 6:17 (CJB) 17 Therefore Adonai says,
“‘Go out from their midst;
don’t even touch what is unclean.
Then I myself will receive you.
In fact, I will be your Father,
and you will be my sons and daughters.’
|Isaiah 52:11 (CJB) 11 Leave! Leave! Get out of there!
Don’t touch anything unclean!
Get out from inside it, and be clean,
you who carry Adonai’s temple equipment.
Ezekiel 20:34 (CJB) 34 I will bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you were scattered, with a mighty hand, with a stretched-out arm and with poured-out fury;
Ezekiel 20:41 (CJB) 41 I will accept you with your sweet aroma when I bring you out from the peoples and gather you out of the countries where you were scattered; and through you I will manifest my holiness in the sight of the nations.
2 Samuel 7:14 (CJB) 14 I will be a father for him, and he will be a son for me. If he does something wrong, I will punish him with a rod and blows, just as everyone gets punished;
Isaiah 43:6 (CJB) 6 I will say to the north, ‘Give them up!’ and to the south, ‘Don’t hold them back! Bring my sons from far away, and my daughters from the ends of the earth,
|2 Corinthians 8:15 (CJB) 15 It is as the Tanakh says,
“He who gathered much had nothing extra,
and he who gathered little had nothing lacking.”
|Exodus 16:18 (CJB) 18 but when they put it in an ‘omer-measure, whoever had gathered much had no excess;
and whoever had gathered little had no shortage; nevertheless each person had gathered
according to his appetite.
|2 Corinthians 8:21 (CJB) 21 for we take pains to do what is right not only in the sight of God but also in the sight of other people.||Proverbs 3:4 (CJB) 4 Then you will win favor and esteem in the sight of God and of people.|
|2 Corinthians 9:7 (CJB) 7 Each should give according to what he has decided in his heart, not grudgingly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver.||Exodus 25:2 (CJB) 2 “Tell the people of Isra’el to take up a collection for me — accept a contribution from anyone who wholeheartedly wants to give.|
|2 Corinthians 9:9 (CJB) 9 as the Tanakh says,
“He gave generously to the poor;
his tzedakah lasts forever.”
|Psalm 112:9 (CJB) 9 He distributes freely, he gives to the poor;
his righteousness stands forever.
His power will be increased honorably.
|2 Corinthians 10:17 (CJB) 17 So, let anyone who wants to boast, boast about Adonai;||Jeremiah 9:24 (CJB) 24 instead, let the boaster boast about this:
that he understands and knows me —
that I am Adonai, practicing grace,
justice and righteousness in the land;
for in these things I take pleasure,” says Adonai.
|2 Corinthians 13:1 (CJB) 1 This will be the third time that I have come to visit you.
Any charge must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses.
|Deuteronomy 19:15 (CJB) 15 “One witness alone will not be sufficient to convict a person of any offense or sin of any kind; the matter will be established only if there are two or three witnesses testifying against him.|